Vitamin D canine / feline
For the quantitative determination of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Calcifediol), both D3 and D2
Expanding models of vitamin D (VitD) look to its impact beyond bone support. VitD is now recognized for its role in gene regulation and the maintenance of cellular health. There is a growing body of evidence that low stores of VitD are associated with a wide range of diseases in dogs and cats.
Unlike humans, dogs and cats do not produce VitD from sunlight; their sole source of VitD comes from their diet. Recent work has demonstrated that VitD blood levels in most dogs and cats are insufficient, warranting supplementation.
|Methodology || ||Chemiluminescent Immunoassay |
|Units (Range) || ||ng/mL (0.5-150) |
|Sample Requirements || ||Serum≥1mL; SST tube / separate & freeze within 45 min|
|Interferences || ||Gross hemolysis / Gross lipemia |
|Stability || ||Room temp: 24 hour / 4 °C: 3 days / -20 °C: 1 year |
Vitamin D Sufficiency Important for Cellular Health
Vitamin D is not a simple vitamin but the precursor to the active hormone 1,25VitD. Well understood for its role in calcium homeostasis, vitamin D is recognized for its role in gene regulation and the maintenance of cellular health.
Many tissues have vitamin D receptors and will locally convert 25VitD to 1,25VitD. Low stores of vitamin D are associated with a wide range of diseases such as cancer, heart disease, infection, and kidney disease.
Unlike humans, dogs and cats do not produce vitamin D from sunlight; their sole source of vitamin D comes from their diet. Recent studies have shown that vitamin D varies significantly by commercial pet food manufacturer. Further, intestinal absorption varies significantly from dog to dog, and by intact status.
Expanding models of vitamin D have generated new terminology of "Deficiency", "Insufficiency", and "Sufficiency" to define the protective effect that increasing stores of vitamin D have against disease.
Testing for 25(OH)D, the primary store of vitamin D, is your best means to objectively measure this important analyte. When found inadequate, dietary supplementation is warranted.
Increased Risk for Disease
Cancer is an immune dysfunction disease. Aberrations to the cell's genes cause uncontrolled growth, and a dysfunction to the immune process prevents the destruction of the aberrant cells. Inflammation, both a precursor and a propagator of cancer genesis is, in part, controlled by vitamin D.
Studies have shown that with adequate stores of vitamin D, inflammation is reduced. Further, low stores of vitamin D are associated with a wide range of benign and malignant diseases.
There is a growing body of evidence that low stores of vitamin D are associated with a wide range of diseases in dogs and cats:
|Cancer(2,5,7,10,11,12) ||Infection(8) |
|Inflammatory bowel disease(4,11)||Feline tooth resorption(3)|
|Renal disease(1,2)|| |
The Right Tests for the Right DecisionSM
- Gerber B, et al. Serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholacalciferol in clinically normal dogs and dogs with acute and chronic renal failure. Am J Vet Res, 2003
- Gerber B, et al. Serum levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in dogs with hypercalcaemia. Vet Res Commun, 2004
- Girard N, et al. Tooth resorption and vitamin D3 status in cats fed premium dry diets. Journal Veterinary Dentistry 2010
- Gow AG, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease and hypoalbuminaemia. J Small Anim Pract, 2011
- Wakshlag JJ, et al. Cross-sectional study to investigate the association between vitamin D status and cutaneous mast cell tumours in Labrador retrievers. Br J Nutr, 2011
- Selting K, et al. Diet and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in dogs. VCS poster, 2012
- Rosa CT, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in dogs with spirocercosis. J Vet Intern Med, 2013
- Lalor SM, et al. Domesticated cats with active mycobacteria infections have low serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 2012
- Kraus MS, et al. Relation of vitamin D status to congestive heart failure and cardiovascular events in dogs. J Vet Intern Med, 2013
- Husbands B. Low stores of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and its association with cancer in dogs. VCS presentation, 2013
- Lalor S, et al. Cats with inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal small cell lymphoma have low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Vet Intern Med, 2014
- Selting K, et al. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in dogs - correlation with health and cancer risk. Vet Comp Onco, 2014